Welcome| About me| Projects| Links German version

Penguin Species

This page provides general information, a list of all species with photos and a comparison of the penguin species in weight, size, egg size and IUCN status.


General information

Number of penguin species

There are 18 different penguin species (according to International Union for Conservation of Nature, IUCN). Confusingly, some scientists insist that there are more or less than 18 species. For example, they state the Rockhopper Penguin as two different species, the Southern and Northern Rockhopper Penguin, while other scientists arrange them as subspecies.
The same problem comes up for the White-flippered Penguin. It is sonetimes classified as an own species or subspecies of the Little Blue Penguin.

Size of penguins

The smallest penguin is the Little Blue Penguin, it is only 30 cm tall. The Emperor Penguin reaches the maximum size of all recent penguins, it can grow over one meter! The extinct Pachydyptes Ponderosus could even achieve a size of 1,60 m.

Distribution

All penguin species are living predominantly on the southern hemisphere. They are distributed from Antarctica till equatorial regions like the Galapagos Islands. So, penguins do not live at antarctic regions in perpetual ice exclusively - contrary to what many people have in mind.

Conservation status

Today almost two thirds of the penguin species are listed as "vulnerable" or even as "endangered" by the IUCN. That is why conservation is very important!
In the following overview of all penguin species the IUCN status is also mentioned:

  • least concern
  • near threatened
  • vulnerable
  • endangered


Penguin Taxonomy

Kingdom: Animalia (Animals)
Phylum: Chordata (Chordates)
Class: Aves (Birds)
Order: Sphenisciformes
Family: Spheniscidae (Penguins)


Recent Penguin Species

Genus Great Penguins (Aptenodytes)

Pinguin

Photographed by: Ian Duffy (UK)
Source: Wikipedia

Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri)

Antarctic continent
Status: near threatened


Pinguin

Photographed by: Ben Tubby
Source: Wikipedia

King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus)

Surrounded islands of Antarctica
Status: least concern


Genus Brush-tailed Penguins (Pygoscelis)

Pinguin

Photographed by: Brent J. Sinclair
Source: Wikipedia

Adelie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae)

Antarctic peninsula, subantarctic islands
Status: near threatened


Pinguin

Photographed by: Katrin Opitz
Zoo Munich, Germany

Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua)

Antarctic peninsula, subantarctic islands
Status: near threatened


Pinguin

Photographed by: Gilad Rom (Israel)
Source: Wikipedia

Chinstrap Penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica)

Antarctic peninsula, subantarctic islands
Status: least concern


Genus Crested Penguins (Eudyptes)

Pinguin

Photographed by: Thomas Mattern
Source: Wikipedia

Fiordland Penguin (Eudyptes pachyrhynchus)

Western coast of the Southern Island of New Zealand, Stewart Island
Status: vulnerable


Pinguin

Photographed by: Thomas Mattern
Source: Wikipedia

Snares Penguin (Eudyptes robustus)

Snares Islands
Status: vulnerable


Erect-crested Penguin (Eudyptes sclateri)

Antipodes Islands, Bounty Islands, Auckland Islands
Status: endangered


Pinguin

Photographed by: Hullwarren
Source: Wikipedia

Royal Penguin (Eudyptes schlegeli)

Macquarie Island
Status: vulnerable


Pinguin

Photographed by: Jerzy Strzelecki
Source: Wikipedia

Macaroni Penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus)

Antarctic peninsula, subantarctic islands
Status: vulnerable


Pinguin

Photographed by: Katrin Opitz
"Rocky" at SANCCOB in Cape Town, South Africa

Northern Rockhopper Penguin (Eudyptes moseleyi)

Tristan da Cunha island group, Gough Island, Amsterdam and Saint Paul Islands
Status: endangered



Pinguin

Photographed by: Samuel Blanc
www.sblanc.com
Quelle: Wikipedia

Southern Rockhopper Penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome)

Surrounded islands of Antarctica
Status: vulnerable


Genus Megadyptes

Pinguin

Photographed by: Christian Mehlf├╝hrer
Source: Wikipedia

Yellow-eyed Penguin (Megadyptes antipodes)

Stewart Island, Auckland Islands, Campbell Island, southern part of the Southern Island of New Zealand
Status: endangered


Genus Banded Penguins (Spheniscus)

Pinguin

Photographed by: Katrin Opitz
Zoo Bremerhaven, Germany

Humboldt Penguin (Spheniscus humboldti)

Peru, Chile
Status: vulnerable


Pinguin

Photographed by: Katrin Opitz
Boulders Beach, South Africa

African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus)

Namibia, Western and Eastern Cape of South Africa and surrounded islands (e.g. Robben Island, Dassen Island, St Croix Island)
Status: endangered


Pinguin

Photographed by: Guglielmo Celata
Source: Wikipedia

Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus)

Southern Argentina, Tierra del Fuego, Southern Chile, Falkland Islands
Status: near threatened


Pinguin

Photographed by: putneymark
Source: Wikipedia

Galapagos Penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus)

Galapagos Islands
Status: endangered


Genus Little Blue Penguins (Eudyptula)

Pinguin

Photographed by: Magnus Kjaergaard
Source: Wikipedia

Little Blue Penguin (Eudyptula minor)

Southern Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand and surrounded islands
Status: least concern